100 Years of Change

Monday, April 27, 2015

As Australia's social researchers, we love research that takes the pulse of the nation and reveals something of who we are. We are passionate about research that is engaging and that tells a story. So here are 35 interesting statistics about Australia, highlighting how much we have changed over the last 100 years!

100 years of change: 1915 to 2015

  1. In 1915 Australia was a young nation in more ways than one — our average age was just 24 compared to 37 today.
  2. Back then it was the Northern Territory which the census showed had the oldest median age (41.7) with Tasmania the youngest (with a median age of 22.4). A century later this has completely reversed with Tasmania being our oldest state (median age of 40.8) and the NT at 31.5 — the youngest.
  3. In 1915 men outnumbered women by more than 161,000. Today it is women who outnumber men in Australia by more than 105,000.
  4. In Australia in 1915, those aged 65 were classified as being of ‘old age’. Less than one in 20 Australians was aged 65 or over compared to almost one in five today.
  5. The number of aged pensioners has increased by more than 31 times in a century from 72,959 in 1915 to 2.3 million today.
  6. The percentage of the Australian population aged under 15 has halved over the last 100 years. While the under 15’s comprised 31 per cent in 1915, today they comprise just 15 per cent.
  7. Amazingly in 1915 there were 4,289 Australians ‘born at sea’, which meant that the 10th most likely birthplace for Australians born overseas was actually born at sea.
  8. Remarkably the top five birthplaces of Australians born overseas has hardly changed: In 1915 it was, in order UK, Germany, New Zealand, China and Italy. Today it is UK, New Zealand, China, India and Italy.
  9. Over the last 100 years Australia’s population has increased almost fivefold from just under five million to almost 24 million today.
  10. The average household today has two less people in it than in 1915: from an average of 4.5 people to just 2.6 people today.
  11. In 1915 there were 45,364 marriages registered per year while a century on there are 2.6 times more marriages registered at around 119,000 per year.
  12. However while marriages have increased by 2.6 times, divorce numbers are up 95.7 times. 1915 saw just 498 divorces recorded compared to today’s annual numbers exceeding 47,000.
  13. Back in 1915, Sydney was the city where most Aussies resided. However, Adelaide today has twice the population of Sydney back then.
  14. As many people live in Sydney today (4.9 million) as lived in the whole of Australia in 1915.
  15. Melbourne is seven times larger today than it was in 1915. In fact the Gold Coast has a larger population today than Melbourne had back then when it was home to the Commonwealth Parliament.
  16. Australia’s population growth rate has almost halved in a century from more than 3 per cent per annum to 1.6 per cent today. However it remains the second fastest growing nation in the developed world — in 1915 it was beaten only by Canada, and today only by Luxembourg.
  17. The population of Perth has seen the greatest growth rate of any Australian capital in a century. In 1915 the population of Perth was 106,792 while today it is 2,107,000 which is almost 20 times the size!
  18. Brisbane has also experienced great growth over the last century, increasing by 16.6 times its population of 139,480 back in 1915 to 2,329,000 today.
  19. The population of Adelaide has also experienced steady growth over the last 100 years from 189,646 people in 1915 to 1,318,000 today, which equates to 6.9 times its size of the century.
  20. Hobart has experienced the least growth of all Australia’s major cities, only increasing by 5.5 times its 1915 population of 39,937 to its current population of 220,000.
  21. In 1915 most of Australia’s population growth came from natural increase (births minus deaths) which accounted for almost three fifths of growth with just two fifths coming from net migrations (permanent arrivals from overseas minus permanent departures). Today this statistic is reversed with two fifths of our growth from natural increase and three fifths from immigration.
  22. In 1915 there were just 2,465 university students in Australia while today there are almost 1.2 million — an increase of 480 times!
  23. While a loaf of bread would have cost you 3½ pence in 1915, today a loaf could cost you around $2.50 and milk has gone from 3 pence per litre to $1.50 today. However land price rises have been even more significant with for example land blocks in newly developed suburbs such as Asquith for £200 compared to more than $600,000 today.
  24. Back in 1915, the vast majority of the population (96 per cent) associated themselves with the Christian faith, while today this has dropped to 61.1 per cent.
  25. A century ago the biggest religion after Christianity was Judaism (0.38 per cent) then Confucianism (0.12 per cent), Islam (0.09 per cent) and Buddhism (.07 per cent). Today Buddhism (2.5 per cent) has the most Australian adherents after Christianity followed by Islam (2.2 per cent), Hinduism (1.3 per cent) and Judaism (0.5 per cent).
  26. While all the mainstream religions other than Christianity have increased their share of the population, the option with the biggest increase has been “no religion” and “agnostic” having gone from 0.6 per cent a century ago to 22.5 per cent currently, an increase of more than 37 times.
  27. Today we have 4 times more students attending a state school than we did 100 years ago. Back in 1915, 593,059 students attended a state school compared to 2,406,495 today.
  28. There are also a lot more students attending private or catholic schools then there were 100 years ago, eight times more in fact. Back in 1915 only 156,106 attended a private or Catholic school, compared to 1,287,606 today.
  29. 100 years on, due to increased migration capacity, less residents of our population are Australian born than they were a century ago. Back in 1915 more than four in five (82 per cent) people were Australian-born. Over the century this figure has decreased to 71 per cent of the population.
  30. Australia’s European-born population has also decreased from 15 per cent of the total population in 1915 to 10 per cent 100 years later.
  31. In the last 100 years Australia has only planted two new cities: places that had no population base and are now stand-alone cities: Canberra (our 8th largest currently) and the Gold Coast (6th largest).
  32. By the end of World War 1, 420,000 men had enlisted which was around 39 per cent of the population of men aged 18 to 44. In 1915 there were 367,961 males aged 18 to 26.
  33. When WW1 began in 1914, there were 161,910 more males than females in Australia. By the end of 1918 there were 83,885 more females than males nationally.
  34. In WW1 there were 219,461 Australians killed, captured or injured in battle which was a casualty rate of almost two thirds of all those who embarked, and is the equivalent of one in five of the total 1915 Australian male population aged 18 to 44.
  35. The total Australian soldier casualties in WW1 exceeds the total number of adult males currently living in the state of Tasmania.

See the full article here


100 Years on from the ANZAC Sacrifice

Thursday, April 23, 2015

It was predicted that 2015 would be a year of reflection as the country remembers the centenary of the ANZACS at Gallipoli and the military sacrifices of the 100 years since. A recent survey conducted by McCrindle Research demonstrates the high regard in which modern day Australians hold the ANZACS and their impact on shaping the identity and values of Australia today.

A Year of Reflection

The lucky country is in 2015 being transformed into the reflective country. This is largely attributed to the centenary of the ANZAC landings, and on which rests the anticipation of record attendance at ANZAC services around the country as well as the big events at Gallipoli. But it isn’t only April 25th that will be big in the calendar, the entire year is set to have centenary reflections of Australians involvement with WW1, causing us to reflect on sacrifice, loss, duty and the makings of modern Australia.

‘2015 will see Australia unusually reflective. Self-analysis is not part of our national psyche yet the year ahead will see us looking back, looking in, and remembering. It will not be a year of sadness – just sombreness – the ‘no worries’ attitude subdued for a while. Australians love a celebration and this land of the long-weekend is good at enjoying the journey – but the year ahead will bring some heaviness to the journey, and some healthy introspection as well’.Mark McCrindle

ANZAC Spirit Alive Today

By the end of World War 1, 420,000 men had enlisted to serve at war, which was around 39% of the population of men aged 18 to 44. As we approach the centenary of ANZAC Day we take a look at the likelihood with which Aussie’s today would enlist to serve at war today.

Gen Y Men Most Likely To Enlist

While 1 in 4 (25%) Australians would enlist for a war today mirroring the global conflict of WW1, this figure increases to 1 in 3 (34%) among the male population across the country.

Gen Y males (aged 21-35) would be the most likely generation to enlist with more than 2 in 5 (42%) indicating so and mirroring the same representation of males aged 18 to 44, 100 years earlier (39%). As Australian males get older, the likelihood of them enlisting for war decreases.

There are 2.59 million Gen Y males in Australia today (those born 1980 to 1994). In this survey, 13% have stated that ‘yes definitely’ they would enlist in such a scenario, which equates to 335,482 from this age group (21-35 year olds) and is equivalent to the number that signed up in this age group a century ago.

ANZACS Influential in Shaping Australia’s National Identity

The characteristics which define us as a nation – mateship, freedom and respect have all been heavily influenced by the ANZACS and their sacrifice at Gallipoli 100 years ago according to modern day Australians.

Nearly all Australians surveyed consider the ANZACS to have been influential in shaping Australia’s ‘sacrifice for others’ characteristic (98%) and the Australian expression of ‘mateship’ (97%). More than 3 in 4 (78%) of those who indicated this felt the ANZACS were extremely or very influential in this regard, highlighting the formative role of the ANZACS when it comes to these components of Australia’s values and national identity.

Majority of Australians also believe that the Anzacs were heavily influential in shaping the following components of Australia’s character:

100 Years of Change in Australia


For More Information

For all media enquiries please contact the office on 02 8824 3422 or ashley@mccrindle.com.au.

.

Welcome to our blog...

We have a passion for research that tells a story, that can be presented visually, that brings about change and improves organisations. And we hope these resources help you know the times.

Our Social Media Sites

Facebook | McCrindle Research Social Media YouTube | McCrindle Research Social Media Twitter | McCrindle Research Social Media Flickr | McCrindle Research Social Media Pinterest | McCrindle Research Social Media Google Plus | McCrindle Research Social Media LinkedIn | McCrindle Research Social Media Mark McCrindle Slideshare


Last 150 Articles


Tags

Northern Beaches program non profit keynote speaker gig economy marrickville australia generational trends generations school students wealth future of work investment organisations social researchers australian social research innovative intern omnibus research data Research Director resource socialising infographics community event digital economy youth unemployment authenticity darwin mythbusters social shifts village careers gen alpha mother's day social analyst sector wide study sydneysider chairty royal family ipswich wedding volunteering data education research staff emerging trends January 26th Social Trend 2013 Australian schools care support CPI work baby boom optus my business awards seasons greetings ethnography organisational culture futurist engagement ultimo insights capital city data visualisation local communities spend celebration employmee housing affordability housing socialites google for education norwest Retail Australian Census christianity IT Specialists aussie culture easy rider Sydney’s south west rain victoria trends of 2017 brand experience thrive builders divorce social men baby name commute professional services ACF 2016 Northern Beaches Christian School sunburnt country wages financial Australian Dream emerging technologies millionth VET sector Northern Territory millenials hopes qualitative research tattoos education future report toys Sydney keynote speaker faux-cilising housing market Business analysis small business online REIV Conference economy employment poker master Northern beaches Event tips housing trends educated future proofing unemployment census results priorities tea communities social commentator sydney speaker menai woolworths earn Christmas in Australia McCrindle Keynote Speakers monarchy deloitte sports overcast repayments younger generations Sydney population Gen Z Expert demographic transformations online shopping The Daily Edition conferences Queensland: QLD kate middleton Hunter Valley christian public transport results 2014 daily telegraph cloudy days high density apartments trend tuesday property price crime showreel Mount Annan-Currant Hill mentor education Melbourne social commentary young people shopping debt not for profit 23 million professional speaker renting australians staying home more personalities sydney metro mateship church manly Australian Home Australian demographics System's Architect the australian dream tv Wellington participants financial fears office opening TEDx student Jura Coffee household Kiwi NEETs dream training consumer pyrmont volunteering pharmacy sector Macquarie University Australian Population Australians social issues house price rise shopping centre shifts moreton bay high density australian communities trends report ideas sydneysiders gig sustainable case study public speaker financial independence buildings breakfast professional presenters selfie middle class baby name predictions ageing population social trends social research Kirsten Brewer cash research NBRS video australian community trends report tertiary education donation seasons #censusfail year 7 volunteers Generation X gender 2017 relational eliane vegemite 1975 lalor park money Christmas data FOMO casual business happy holidays global generations geomapping demographer transport house price average aussie summer Sydney Hills Business Chamber aged care income sydney hills PSI high density living learn Scouts water Australia Day McCrindle Speaker Adelaide Royals work from home low density DIY statistics EFF teacher Caregiver Christmas Stats rental stress area rent australian real estate panel research visualisation baby boomers workshop growth of sydney gen z rule keeper financial planning national crime rates paying to work fears know the times marriage McCridle goal Australian Trends Crime Rates happiness Mark McCrindle choice workers quote population optus media marketing university degree mccrindle schools trend 40 million wealth and income ashley fell cars investor REIV National Conference hunger baby names australia report screenagers affordable poor global leadership US census equip internet slideshare entrepreneurial networking couple waverton wealth and income distribution demographics baby Christmas day dare to dream 2016 dessert South Australia economic food insecurity house prices focus group demographic trends infographic wall entertainment language Births Tuesday Trends average Australian investing living names youth VET hills shire wellbeing dreams internships Christmas presents media release market research NSW list ease of travel ACT ageing publication christmas trees speajer leader communications nativity scene group census fail school satisfaction sentiments shbc emerging generations commuting trades population milestone study lifestyle life child care TEDx Speaker GPO business performance office employmer Australian communities train debate affordability research report land of the middle class environmental scanning research pack cost owning a home TED cultural diversity future rich shopper's pick growth story population map insight prince george grandparents analysis etiquette volunteer NT suburbs TAS friends generation alpha Andrew Duffin Territory domestic professional jobs donate healthy future staying in James Ward salary earning optimistic increasing densification parents not for profit research vegetarian changing face of sydney teleworking property market forum trends analyst university ABS education future the hills shire Love Netflix community engagement Vocational education safe hills social impact stats learning styles princess charlotte stay home in the media entrepreneur visual wage criminal father's day charity Financial Planning Week greatness work mates social researcher royal SMSF demographic house storytelling alpha teaching offenders presentation English Western Australia 10 years apartments Sydney NBRS Architecture motivate leadership workshop daily commute politics future of shopping communicate weekly earnings typical australian nfp rising house prices world culture award Geoff Brailey jobs of the future demography office space royal baby 2020 home owner 2016 census results brands Tuesday Trend consumerism local community Do It Yourself cancel plans Jura Australia challenge outsourcing Mark McCrindle in the media workplace culture Christmas research home australian communities forum finance 2016 census annual income FPA christmas 2017 research services Christchurch New Zeland financial dreams children bondi balance contiki property development Lower Hunter Region belief group session Gen Y anzac identity environment researcher logan Australian Bureau of Statistics energy Elderslie-Harrington park commuters Research Executive Christmas lunch supply and demand event innovation future-proof world youth day engage brand retirement follow teachers Black Friday Sales trends define work-life narcissism sydney market coffee TED talk Black Friday Wodonga forecasting post rationalism giving McCrindle Speakers Engineering Manager the lucky country mccrindle research business index urban living index mover and shaker unaffordable collaborative Queensland financial future entrepreneurs of today new office ACF2017 royal influence DESTEL twentyseventeen bureau easter screenage SRE city news research on coffee Res Vis meals future of education thought leadership urban living Canberra workplace HSC property collaboration data analyst cartodb cold live the dream sunny days ACF townhouses New Zealand wealth inequality clothing change households travelling not-for-profit media commentary mccrindle in the media skills learner census data interactive long weekend going out report Black Friday in Australia hello fresh The ABC of XYZ bus social analysis Tasmania christmas responsive Maxim Accounting mccrinlde earnings cancelling event sydney event urban development year 12 baby names report customer Work place who is generation z social lives Australian Families state food bank mobile cultural diveristy award winner World Water Day acf15 curiosity 24 million mortgage grave decision JOMO Real Estate click school Financial Planning Association of Australia "know the times" winter blues Merry Christmas cica speaker society trends sector wide personal growth relevant cooking Population Clock suburban living society community Bathburst rise of local government 1968 snapshot aged care puzzle Cobbitty-Leppington facts social media speakers pack wolloomooloo product recap Australian community trends impact 2012 generation schools students gold coast faith digital states cost of living visualisation population growth plans winter huffington post career Generation Y sydney property market women Assistant Store Manager census 2016 resilience What is food insecurity? NFP event infographic megatrends fresh millennials holidays suburb ACF17 Skilling food apartment presentations australian future proof faux-ciliser urban taskforce 24,000,000 divorce rate Education Future Forum baby name trends Myth Australian Communities Trends Performance Sentiment Index social enquiry keynote 1980 graphs mining boom Lower Hunter Wagga Wagga Hills Shire Council litter ferry technology public holiday marriages ACT Report average sydneysider Deaths Australia Day 2017 tableau wealth distribution educhat in depth interviews trends of 2016 national private wealth growing population learning experience holiday mccrindle tea friendship charities conference workforce Aussies crows nest speakers global financial crisis global retail medicine the average aussie high school baby names tuesday coffee lovers Channel 7 religion conference presentation ashley mckenzie micro apartments survey design blaxland SA meetings national wealth professional development education sector Hornsby Shire Council newspaper faux-cilise google the hills the changing face of WA potts point internship social change February 16 residents real New South Wales dreaming Valentine’s Day generation Z perth young australians events employers SMART home ownership renter of the future mythbusting capital cities students pharmacies Willowdale housing growth public speaking VIC family purpose families Real Estate Institute of Victoria hornsby the great screenage media activity proactive survey Australia street social life culturally diverse communication hobart goals Christmas season neutral bay sydneycity Aussie eliane miles CBD new york times Financial Planning Association urban 2015 Sydney Lifestyle Study spirituality parenting Christmas day weather Charlotte moderators guide TDE Channel Seven car budget data local micro focus groups Duchess of Cambridge teach travel cancelling plans weather Word Up forecast sun conference speaker Gen X 1994 brisbane

Archive